Students learn English idioms through WhatsApp: Extensive use of smartphones
This study aims at investigating the effect of WhatsApp on teaching English idioms to EFL students. The data were collected from 33 B1 level students. The researchers provided the students with three idioms per week for five weeks via WhatsApp. The participants found sample sentences, shared them in their WhatsApp groups, and had discussions in English regarding the use and meaning of the idioms. Students were given an achievement test and a sub-sample group of students were interviewed to see the effectiveness of this application. The results revealed how students benefited from WhatsApp as a learning tool and their reactions to mobile learning outside the classroom context. The findings highlight the place of mobile learning in foreign language education.
Aburezaq, M. I., & Ishtaiwa, F. F. (2013). The impact of WhatsApp on interaction in an Arabic language teaching course. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 6(3), 165-180.
Albers, M., & Kim, L. (2001). Information design for the small-screen interface: an overview of web design issues for personal digital assistants. Technical Communications, 49(1), 45-60.
Alderson, J. C. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Alemi, M., Srab, M. R. A., & Lari, Z. (2012). Successful learning of academic word list via MALL: Mobile assisted language learning. International Education Studies, 5(6), 99-109.
Allagui, B. (2014). Writing through WhatsApp: An evaluation of students’ writing performance. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organization, 8(3/4), 216-231.
Alzahrani, H. (2015). Examining the effectiveness of utilizing mobile technology in vocabulary development for language learners. Arab World English Journal, 6(3), 108-119.
Amry, A. B. (2014). The impact of WhatsApp mobile social learning on the achievement and attitudes of female students compared with face to face learning in the classroom. European Scientific Journal. 10(22), 116-136.
Andrews, R. (2003). Lrn Welsh by txt msg. BBC News World Edition. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/2798701.stm
Baleghizadeh S., & Oladrostam, E. (2010). The effect of mobile assisted language learning (MALL) on grammatical accuracy of EFL students. MEXTESOL Journal, 34(2), 1-10.
Bansal, T., & Joshi, D. (2014). A study of students’ experiences of mobile learning. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: H. Interdisciplinary, 14(4), 26-33.
Başoğlu, E. B., & Akdemir, Ö. (2010). A comparison of undergraduate students’ English vocabulary learning: Using mobile phones and flash cards. TOJET: Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(3), 1-7.
Bere, A. (2012). A comparative study of student experiences of ubiquitous learning via mobile devices and learner management systems at a South African university. In A. Koch & P. A. van Brakel (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th annual conference on world wide web applications (pp. 4-17). Cape Town, South Africa: Cape Peninsula University of Technology. . Retrieved from http://www.zaw3.co.za/index.php/ZA-WWW/2012/paper/viewFile/537/160
Bere, A. (2013). Using mobile instant messaging to leverage learner participation and transform pedagogy at a South African University of Technology. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(4), 544-561.
Bidin, S., & Ziden, A. A. (2013). Adoption and application of mobile learning in the education industry. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 90, 720-729.
Bouhnik, D., & Deshen M. (2014). WhatsApp goes to school: Mobile instant messaging between teachers and students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 13, 217-231.
Cakir, I. (2015). Opinions and attitudes of prospective teachers for the use of mobile phones in foreign language learning. Contemporary Educational Technology, 6(3), 239-255.
Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47.
Castrillo, M., Monje-Martin, E., & Bárcena, E. (2014). New forms of negotiating meaning on the move: The use of mobile-based chatting for foreign language distance learning. IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, 12(2), 51-67.
Chen, C. M., & Chung, C. J. (2008). Personalized mobile English vocabulary learning system based on item response theory and learning memory cycle. Computers & Education 51(2), 624-645.
Chen, C. M., & Hsu, S. H. (2008). Personalized intelligent mobile learning system for supporting effective English learning. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 153-180.
Chinnery, G. M. (2006). Emerging technologies going to the MALL: Mobile assisted language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 10(1), 9-16.
Church, K., & de Oliveira, R. (2013). What’s up with whatsapp?: Comparing mobile instant messaging behaviors with traditional SMS. In M. Rohs, A. Schmidt, D. Ashbrook, & E. Rukzio (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th international conference on human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services (pp. 352-361). New York, NY: ACM.
Dashti, F., & Aldashti, A. A. (2015). EFL college students’ attitudes towards mobile learning. International Education Studies, 8(8), 13-20.
Ducate, L., & Lomicka, L. (2009). Podcasting: An effective tool for honing language students’ pronunciation? Language Learning & Technology, 13(3), 66-86.
Edirisingha, P., Rizzi, C., Nie, M., & Rothwell, L. (2007). Podcasting to provide teaching and learning support for an undergraduate module on English language and communication. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 8(3), 87-107.
García Laborda, J. G., Magal-Royo, T. M., Litzler, M. F., & Giménez López, J. L. G. (2014). Mobile phones for Spain’s university entrance examination language test. Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 17-30.
Gay, G., Stefanone, M., Grace-Martin, M., & Hembrooke, H. (2001). The effects of wireless computing in collaborative learning environments. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 13(2), 257-276.
Georgiev, T., Georgieva, E., & Smrikarov, A. (2004, June). M-learning - a new stage of e-learning. Paper presented at International conference on computer systems and technologies - CompSysTech’2004, 17-18 June, Rousse, Bulgaria.
Hismanoglu, M., Ersan, Y., & Colak, R. (2015). A study on English preparatory program students’ use and acceptance of mobile phones. International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 6(3), 63-76.
Huang, C., & Sun, P. (2010). Using mobile technologies to support mobile multimedia English listening exercises in daily life. Paper presented at the International conference on computer and network technologies in education (CNTE 2010). Retrieved from nhcuer.lib.nhcue.edu.tw/bitstream/392440000Q/649/1/120.pdf
Hussein, M. O. M., & Cronje, J. C. (2010). Defining mobile learning in the higher education landscape. Educational Technology & Society, 13(3), 12-21.
Jantjies, M. E., & Joy, M. (2014). A framework to support mobile learning in multilingual environments. In I. Sánchez & P. Isaías (Eds.), 10th international conference on mobile learning (pp. 222-229). Madrid, Spain: IADIS.
Klopfer, E., Squire, K., & Jenkins, H. (2002). Environmental detectives: PDAs as a window into a virtual simulated world. In M. Milrad & U. Hoppe (Eds.), IEEE international workshop on wireless and mobile technologies in education (pp. 95-98). Los Alamitos, CA: Computer Society.
Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2009). Will mobile learning change language learning? ReCALL, 21(2), 157-165.
Levy, M., & Kennedy, C. (2005). Learning Italian via mobile SMS. In A. Kukulska-Hulme & J. Traxler (Eds.), Mobile learning: A handbook for educators and trainers. London: Taylor and Francis.
Lu, M. (2008). Effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phone. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(6), 515-525.
Mahmoud, S. S. (2013). The effect of using English SMS on KAU foundation year students’ speaking and writing performance. American International Journal of Social Science, 2(2), 13-22.
Miangah, T. M., & Nezarat, A. (2012). Mobile-assisted language learning. International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems, 3(1), 309-319.
Moore, M. (1989). Three types of interactions. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-7.
Muhammed, A. A. (2014). The impact of mobiles on language learning on the part of English foreign language (EFL) university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 136, 104-108.
O’Malley, C., Vavoula, G., Glew, J.P., Taylor, J., Sharples, M., & Lefrere, P. (2003). MOBIlearn WP4 – Guidelines for learning/teaching/tutoring in a mobile environment. Retrieved from http://www.mobilearn.org/download/results/guidelines.pdf.
Osborne, M. (2013). An autoethnographic study of the use of mobile devices to support foreign language vocabulary learning. SiSAL Journal, 4(4), 295-307.
Oxford, R. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. New York, NY: Newbury House.
Pęcherzewska, A., & Knot, S. (2007). Review of existing EU projects dedicated to dyslexia, gaming in education and m-learning. WR08 Report to CallDysc project, June. Retrieved from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/40115316/WR08-Existing-EU-Projects-review
Pedró, F. (2006). The new millennium learners: challenging our views on ICT and learning. Paris: OECD-CER.
Pei-Lin, L., & Chiu-Jung, C. (2015). Learning English through actions: a study of mobile-assisted language learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 23(2), 158-171. DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2014.959976
Plana, M. G. C., Escofet, M. I. G., Figueras, I. T., Gimeno, A., Appel, C., & Hopkins, J. (2013 July). Improving learners’ reading skills through instant short messages: A sample study using WhatsApp. Paper presented at the 4th WorldCALL Conference, 10-13 July, Glasgow, UK.
Rahimi, M., & Soleymani, E. (2015). The impact of mobile learning on listening anxiety and listening comprehension. English Language Teaching, 8(10), 152-161.
Rambe, P., & Chipunza, C. (2013). Using mobile devices to leverage student access to collaboratively-generated resources: A case of WhatsApp instant messaging at a South African University. In D. Tan (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2013 international conference on advanced ICT and education (pp. 331-337). Amsterdam, Beijing, Paris: Atlantis Press. DOI:10.2991/icaicte.2013.66
Rideout, V., Roberts, D., & Foehr, U. (2005). Generation m: Media in the lives of 8-18 year-olds. Menlo Park, CA: Henry Kayser Family Foundation.
Salem, A. A. M. (2013). The impact of technology (BBM and WhatsApp applications) on English linguistics in Kuwait. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, 2(4), 64-69.
Saran, M., & Seferoğlu, G. (2010). Supporting foreign language vocabulary learning through multimedia messages via mobile phones. H. U. Journal of Education, 38, 252-266.
Stockwell, G. (2010). Using mobile phones for vocabulary activities: Examining the effect of the platform. Language Learning & Technology, 14(2), 95-110.
Tai, Y., & Ting, Y. L. (2011). Adoption of mobile technology for language learning: Teacher attitudes and challenges. The JALT CALL Journal, 7(1), 3-18.
Tapscott, D. (1999). Growing up digital: the rise of the net generation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(3), 217-228.
Viberg, O., & Grönlund, Å. (2012). Mobile assisted language learning: A literature review. In M. Specht, M. Sharples, & J. Multisilta (Eds.), mLearn 2012: Mobile and contextual learning (pp. 9-16). CEUR Workshop Proceedings.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Weissberg, R. (2006). Scaffolded feedback: theoretical conversations with advanced L2 writers. In K. Hyland & F. Hyland (Eds). Feedback in second language writing: Contexts and issues (pp. 246-265). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
WhatsApp. (2015). Retrieved from www.whatsapp.com
Yeboah, J., & Ewur, D. (2014). The impact of WhatsApp messenger usage on students performance in tertiary institutions in Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(6), 157-164.
Zhang, H. Song, W., & Burston, J. (2011). Reexamining the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. TOJET: Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(3), 203-214.